The spine is divided into 3 parts, the cervical, dorsal and lumbar. Each part has specific characteristics conditioned by its daily use and wear. The pathology and treatment of each of these parts of the spine will be different.
Degenerative, traumatic and scoliosis diseases are the most frequent conditions that can affect the spine in its different parts.
Pathologies most frequently treated:
It is generated from the age of 35 and occurs in all people and is part of the normal aging of the spine. It can cause pain and loss of mobility of the part of the spine affected.
Spinal canal stenosis
The medulla is contained in the spinal canal and contains the nerves that go to the extremities that allow us mobility and sensitivity. Over the years, wear on the vertebral discs, bones and thickening of the ligaments occurs. All this causes the narrowing of this channel (stenosis). Depending on the affected area, it causes pain, weakness and tingling that can spread to the arms or legs depending on the part of the spine affected.
This condition is called Intermittent Neural Claudication, which refers to the need to stop walking after walking a short distance, which usually improves after resting for a few minutes.
Herniated disc or herniated nucleus pulposus
Hernia is called the exit of the material from the discs that are located between the vertebrae. They are more frequent in the lower back but can occur anywhere in the spine. This injury causes pain in the area of the back where it occurs and sometimes radiates to the extremities by compressing the adjacent nerves. The appearance of the herniated disc between the lumbar vertebrae causes the so-called sciatica, which causes severe pain and numbness in the leg. Treatment consists of analgesia, relative rest, and physical therapy. Sometimes it requires nerve blocks and only in about 5-10%, surgery.
This disease usually resolves after regression and resorption of the hernia in 90-95% of cases without the need for surgery.
Scoliosis is the abnormal curvature of the spine and is defined as idiopathic when the cause is not clear. This pathology appears mainly in children and adolescents, especially in women and usually stops progressing with adulthood. Aesthetic deformity is the usual reason for consultation, since it does not cause pain, but if the deformity is significant or is already well advanced, it can generate it. Adult or degenerative scoliosis is part of the spinal aging process and can be painful and progress in a variable way.
It is the displacement of one vertebra over another and can develop from adolescence or secondary to a fracture of the interarticular region, allowing vertebral displacement. It is more frequent in the lumbar area.
Spondylolisthesis can be degenerative occurring in adulthood, being displacement by degenerative phenomena of the vertebral segment. The fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae are the most frequently affected. The main consequence of the displacement is the spinal stenosis as it passes through the spinal canal and the progressive appearance of low back pain and pain in the leg, behaving similarly to a pattern of intermittent lumbar claudication.
Fracture and dislocation of the spine due to trauma
All parts of the spine can be affected and depending on the type of injury can cause neurological damage, which can be irreversible. These traumatic injuries, with and without neurological injury, may require surgical management, but in most cases conservative treatment with a cervical collar or with a thoracic corset for 12-16 weeks is enough, depending on the case, requires subsequent rehabilitation of the affected segment to regain mobility and strength.